Transistors and diodes

Submitted by Rysio on Sat, 04/17/2021 - 18:32

Some of the transistors come from the disassembly of old boards, and some from the box saved by recycling in the  early 90s .

A brief history of the first transistors (timeline)  is given on

Time line

And a copy of the timeline ...

1947

  • December: John Bardeen and Walter Brattain achieve the transistor effect in a germanium point-contact transistor.

1948

  • June: William Shockley files a patent for a junction transistor Bell Labs Type A point-contact transistor - manufactured in a total of 3,700 (until mid-1949)
  • Raytheon introduces the CK703 - the first commercially available point-contact transistor.
  • The first European transistor: invented independently of the Bell Labs group by the Germans working in Paris, Herbert Mataré and Heinrich Welker.

1949

  • The Paris-based F&S Westinghouse is the first in Europe to manufacture transistors (designed by Herbert Mataré).
  • Czechoslovakia: Based on fragmentary reports from the Bell Laboratory, Helmar Frank and Jan Tauc are building point-contact transistors in Prague. They use post-German germanium crystals used in radar technology.
  • USSR: First point-contact transistors at the Moscow Chemical and Technological Institute.

1950

  • Bell Labs constructed the first working junction transistor.
  • Bell Labs: cultivation of germanium single crystals using the Czochralski method.
  • Mohawk Business Machines Company - Transistor ("spy") tape recorder

1951

  • Short series production of Bell Labs Type M1752 alloy-junction transistor.
  • Harvard opens semiconductor studies.
  • Bell Labs: Pull-type transistors.
  • Western Electric - Mechanized production of transistors in Allentown
  • The Bell Labs is organizing the Transistor Technology Symposium, where a large proportion of the results of research on transistor technology are shared. 35 companies buy a license to manufacture transistors for $ 25,000.

1952

  • Prof. Janusz Groszkowski as part of IPPT PAN organizes the Electronics Department, which undertook experimental work in the field of semiconductors.
  •  Western Electric starts industrial production of 2N27, 2N28 and 2N29 alloy transistors.
  • Bell Labs: Zone Cleanup.
  • Bell Labs: cultivation of silicon monocrystals using the Czochralski method.
  • RCA is organizing a symposium where it presents prototypes of 24 transistor devices, including a portable TV with a 5 "cathode ray tube (it contained 37 transistors).
  •  The first commercial transistor devices - hearing aids.
  •  Philips: Launches production of the OC50-OC51 point-contact transistor.
  •  RCA: push-pull amplifier based on complementary transistors.

1953

  • In December, a prototype of the germanium point-contact transistor TP1 is being developed at the Department of Electronics of the IPPT PAN.
  • USA: About 1,000,000 transistors were produced in 1953 (almost half of which were Raytheon).
  • Raytheon introduces the production of the CK722 - a widely available commercially available alloy-junction transistor, which is quickly gaining popularity among radio amateurs.
  • RCA is building a military "handheld" radio (called "Dick Tracey").
  • The University of Manchester builds the first transistor test computer.
  • Intermetall presents a transistor radio receiver - the first for the "wide audience".
  • Philips: Launches production of OC10-OC12 alloy-junction transistors.
  • Philips is building a massive transistor factory in Nijmegen that will soon dominate transistor production in Europe.
  • USSR: experimental production of the first KS1-KS8 and S1-S4 point-contact transistors.

1954

  •  The Department of Electronics at IPPT PAN provides the Experimental Department of the Institute of Telecommunications with the first prototypes of germanium point-contact transistors.
  •  Texas Instruments presents the first silicon transistor.
  • Bell Labs develops diffusion transistors.
  •  Regency TR-1 - the first mass-produced radio.
  • Europe - alloy-junction transistors: Philips OC70-OC71, Telefunken OC601-OC602 Siemens & Halske TF70-TF71 (npn).
  • Start of serial production of transistors in Japan.
  • Bell Labs: solar cells with 6% efficiency on silicon pn junctions.
  • IBM demonstrates an experimental version of the Model 604 calculator built on transistors. Its development later (1958) went into serial production as the IBM 608, but due to the high price, it was not a commercial success.

1955

  • Bell Labs develops silicon dioxide masking and lithographic methods.
  • RCA launches the production of alloy-diffusion (drift) RF transistors 2N247.
  • RCA builds a 20W transistor acoustic amplifier
  • Philips OC72, Telefunken OC604, OD604, Siemens TF65, TF75, TF85
  • The first transistor radio from the Japanese company Sony.
  • USSR: production of the first KSW1-KSW2 alloy-junction  transistors (later P1-P2). Due to poor encapsulation, they were very unstable and unreliable, as early as the 1970s there were practically no working copies.

1956

  • The Industrial Institute of Electronics is established. An experimental production of germanium diodes was located at the PIE Experimental Station.
  • British Metropolitan-Vickers is building the MV950, a commercial version of the University of Manchester computer using junction transistors.
  • Alloy-junction  power transistors OC16 and IF Philips OC45, Telefunken OC612.
  • Philips (along with Valvo and Mullard) has produced one million OC7x series transistors. They have become as popular in Europe as the CK722 in the US.
  • Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain receive the Nobel Prize for the invention of the transistor.
  • USSR: Introduction to the production of alloy-junction  transistors: P4 (power), P5-P7 (PNP), P8-P11 (NPN), P401-403 (alloy-diffusion), P101-P106 (silicon alloyed). It is not clear in which years the different types were introduced - according to some data, up to the 1960s.
  • East Germany: presents the transistors OC811 and OC812 at the Leipzig trade fair.

1957

  • The OMIG Radio Components Plant is established. The plant produces AS-571 hearing aids using four Philips transistors - the first commercial transistor device manufactured in Poland.
  • The laboratory in Oświęcim received about 11 kg of germanium dioxide, from which germanium was produced in the form of single crystals.
  • The PIE Experimental Station developed the DOG11..DOG22, DOG51..DOG58, DZG1..DZG7 diode technology - total production until 1957 was 450,000 pcs
  • Zakład Elektroniki IPPT PAN and Zakład Doświadczalny IŁ have developed and produced, until 1957, a total of about 20,000 germanium diodes of various types (point-contact TA11-TA24, layered TA51-TA52) and around 10,000 transistors (point-contact TP1-TP3, layered TZ5-TZ11, TC11, TC13, TC15).
  • USA: In 1957, approximately 29 millions transistors of 600 types were produced
  • Texas Instruments develops MESA technology.
  • Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory: JFET transistor and four-layer diode.
  • The Japanese begin exporting transistor radio receivers.
  • USSR: in 1957, 2.7 million transistors of several types were produced.
  • USSR: The first transistors in space. The electronics of Sputnik 2 included transistors in cosmic ray pulse counters.

1958

  • The TEWA Semiconductor Factory was established on the basis of the Semiconductor Experimental Center of the Ministry of Communications.
  • The PEWA Semiconductor Production Plant was established from the PIE Experimental Station.
  • Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments) builds the first integrated circuit.
  • In the Explorer I mission, the Western Electric 53194 transistors (germanium diffusion RF 4 pcs.), 2N64 (2 pcs.), Texas Instruments 2N338 (silicon, 8 pcs.), 2N496 (2 pcs.), 2N335 (17 pcs.) Were used, among others. pcs).
  • Czechoslovakia: Tesla 2800B T58 transistor radio.
  • Czechoslovakia: introduction of transistors 152NU70, 155NU70, 101NU70, 102NU70 into production.

1959

  • Eltra MOT-59 - the first Polish transistor radio (based on imported transistors). Several hundred copies were produced.
  • In 1959, Polish industry produced 17,000 transistors.
  • IBM is introducing large series of IBM 7000 and IBM 1400 transistor computers into production. For its purposes, it is building a factory that produces 1900 transistors per hour. The "Stretch" (7030) computers held the title of the strongest for several years. Their CPU (7101) contained 169,000 transistors.
  • Fairchild Semiconductor develops a planar transistor.
  • Philips starts the production of popular OC169-171 alloy diffusion transistors.
  • The first industrially produced transistor TVs (Philco, Sony).
  • The first DEC PDP-1 minicomputer was created. In the early 1960s, 53 units were produced, some with graphic terminals.

1960

  • Introduction to the production of TG1-TG5, TG70 transistors
  • Eltra Koliber MOT-601 - the first mass-produced Polish transistor radio (based on imported transistors).
  • First commercial IC: Texas Instruments SN502 (MESA trigger)
  • Fairchild builds the first planar integrated circuits (digital RTL).
  • RCA develops the "hometaxial base" technology, which is produced by the legendary 2N3055 power transistor.

1961

  • Introduction to the production of TG10, TG20, TG50, TG52, TG53 transistors.
  • The PEWA plant was incorporated into the TEWA plant.
  • For $ 500,000, Fairchild is commissioned by Seymour Cray to develop the 2N709 switching transistor, fT = 600MHz, for the fastest computers. It was produced in enormous numbers - one of the CDC orders was for 10 million units (each CDC6600 computer contained about 600,000).
  • Fairchild introduces 2N914 - the first epitaxial planar transistor.
  • Bell Labs: Amorphous Substrate Thin Film Transistors (TFT).

1962

  • Zakład Elektroniczny in Toruń is established - it will produce diodes.
  • Motorola introduces the 2N2222 transistor.
  • Motorola introduces MC300 series ECL logic circuits.
  • Signetics introduces DTL logic circuits.
  • RCA creates the first MOS integrated circuits commissioned by the USAF.
  • LEDs on gallium arsenide.
  • USSR: Launch of the experimental production of the R12-2 monolithic integrated circuit.

1963

  • Introduction to the production of TG55, TG60 transistors.
  • The first mass-produced commercial minicomputer - DEC PDP-5/8
  • The first models of "desktop" transistor calculators
  • Texas Instruments launches the production of SN52x series analog integrated circuits.
  • Philips introduces the BC107 family of transistors.
  • USSR: planar transistor 2T312.

1964

  • Production of germanium transistor in MESA technology (TG41) has started
  • Silicon rectifier diodes DK60-DK62
  • ELWRO starts the production of the ODRA 1003 transistor computer (the prototype was launched in 1963)
  • Texas Instruments introduces the SN5400 series - TTL digital circuits
  • Fairchild μA702 - integrated operational amplifier.
  • General Microelectronics introduces the first commercial MOS IC.

1965

  • In 1965, 2.57 million transistors were produced.
  •  Eltra Koliber 3 - produced on Polish transistors.
  • Jacek Karpiński at the Institute of Physics of the University of Warsaw builds the KAR-65 computer from transistors smuggled from Great Britain. It was twice as fast and 30 times cheaper than the then ODRA series machines, and worked until the 1980s.
  • USA: 9.5 million monolithic integrated circuits were produced (not counting those produced by companies such as IBM for their own needs).
  • Burroughs and RCA also produce computers based on integrated circuits.
  • Sylvania produces 256-bit TTL ROM
  • IBM Components Division builds SP95 16-bit bipolar RAM for the System / 360 Model 95 computer.
  • Fairchild μA709 - an operational amplifier that achieved great commercial success.

1966

  • The Institute of Electron Technology is established in Warsaw.
  • Lamina in Piaseczno starts the production of power semiconductors.
  • IBM: dynamic RAM (DRAM)
  • Teradyne J259 - the first fully computerized IC testing system.
  • Texas Instruments builds the first "pocket calculator".
  • USSR: experimental line for the production of planar integrated circuits.

1967

  • Transistor AF514-AF516 - germanium MESA for VHF range
  • BF504-BF506 transistors - silicon MESA. The first Polish NPN transistors.
  • National Semiconductor LM101 Operational Amplifier.

1968

  • HF alloy-junction transistors AF426-AF429
  • ELWRO launches Odra 1204.
  • Planar technology equipment was purchased from SESCOSEM. COCOM will not legalize them until 1972, when they will also be fully operational.
  • BF510-511 (???) transistors.
  • RCA releases the CD4000 series of digital circuits in CMOS technology.
  • LCD display.
  • Fairchild μA741 operational amplifier.

1969

  • BC527-528, BF519-BF521 (epiplanar) and BUY52-BUY53 (high power MESA) transistors.
  • USA: about 253 million monolithic integrated circuits were produced (not counting those produced by companies such as IBM for their own needs).
  • I3101, Schottky TTL 64 bit static RAM. Intel's first integrated circuit.
  • Bell Labs: CCD.
  • Semiconductor lasers on heterojunction.
  • Seiko (Japan) - the first commercial quartz wristwatch.
  • Busicom (NCR 18-16) - the first commercial calculator built on a single integrated circuit (MOS by the new company Mostek).
  • USSR: Prototype series of integrated circuits of the K155 family.
  • Czechoslovakia: TTL experimental digital circuit series.

1970

  • In 1970, 10.6 million transistors were produced
  • On April 1, CEMI (Scientific and Production Center for Semiconductors) was established, an organizational unit bringing together all the basic units dealing with semiconductors.
  • ELWRO launches ODRA 1305 - a transistor computer based on the licensed British ICL1900 architecture.
  • First microprocessor: PMOS MP944 technology used in the F14 CADC (F-14A Central Air Data Computer) used in the Grumman F-14 Tomcat fighter. It was a very advanced 20-bit pipeline chip that was classified until 1998, hence little known.
  • Plessey: Gallium arsenide MESFET transistor fT = 20GHz.
  • Until 1970, the USSR undertook a small series of experimental production of monolithic integrated circuits of several families. He did not launch large-scale industrial production.
  • Until 1970, none of the Eastern European countries had started the industrial production of monolithic integrated circuits.

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